Baie d’Hudson

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Canada

La baie d’Hudson (prononciation en français de France&nbsp 90s football jerseys;: [bɛ d‿ydsɔn], en français québécois : [be d͡z‿ʏdsõ]) est une baie située au Canada. Il s’agit d’une des plus grandes baies au monde (sa superficie est de 822 324 km2), elle est entourée par les provinces du Québec best belts, de l’Ontario, du Manitoba et par le territoire du Nunavut. L’Organisation hydrographique internationale la considère comme une partie de l’océan Arctique.

Cette baie porte le nom de l’explorateur anglais Henry Hudson qui, en 1610, y fut pris dans les glaces avec son bateau. Médard Chouart des Groseilliers et Pierre-Esprit Radisson ont déclaré être allés à la baie d’Hudson par voie terrestre en 1659, mais les historiens doutent fortement de ce fait, leurs voyages chez les Algonquins ou Anishnabés du lac Supérieur leur ayant donné des informations au sujet de cette grande étendue d’eau salée qu’ils appellent mer du Nord ou grande Baie du Nord. En 1668, à la tête de la première expédition de la toute nouvelle Compagnie de la Baie d’Hudson qu’ils avaient aidé à fonder, ils y entrèrent finalement.

La baie d’Hudson est ensuite historiquement indissociable de la lutte franco-anglaise pour l’Amérique du Nord aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles. En effet, elle donnait accès aux vastes territoires de traite des fourrures dont chaque pays voulait obtenir l’exclusivité. Les Français, établis dans la vallée du Saint-Laurent (Nouvelle-France), envoyèrent plusieurs expéditions pour déloger les postes de traite que les Anglais y avaient érigés sous l’égide de la Compagnie de la Baie d’Hudson. En 1697, le capitaine Pierre Le Moyne d’Iberville défera ainsi trois navires de la Royal Navy dans la bataille de la Baie d’Hudson, la plus importante bataille navale de l’Arctique nord-américain et capturera le Quartier Général anglais de York Factory what is a natural meat tenderizer.

Les Anglais firent de même avec les postes français. Le tout ne fut réglé qu’après la confirmation de la propriété de ce territoire à la Grande-Bretagne en 1713 par les Traités d’Utrecht.

L’Organisation Hydrographique Internationale définit les limites de la baie d’Hudson de la façon suivante:

La baie d’Hudson mesure environ 960 km de large et 1 390 km du nord au sud mais son bassin est peu profond : sa profondeur moyenne est de 125 m, mais elle est inférieure à 80 m jusqu’à 100 km de la côte. Le fond est généralement peu accidenté avec seulement quelques dépressions et des bancs peu profonds. La raison en est qu’elle a été formée lors de la dernière glaciation par rabotage du bouclier canadien précambrien par les glaciers.

En observant bien la forme de la baie, on peut remarquer que la partie sud-est de la baie d’Hudson est constituée d’un demi-cercle dont le centre est situé au nord des îles Belcher. Bien qu’aucune preuve ne l’était, une hypothèse avancée est que cette forme, nommée Nastapoka, indiquerait la présence de l’un des plus grands cratères d’impact météoritiques du monde avec un diamètre de 456 km et âgé d’environ 2 milliards d’années. Parmi les principaux caps créés par cette formation, on retrouve la pointe Louis-XIV, le cap Dufferin et le cap Henrietta Maria meat tenderising marinade.

L’afflux des eaux des îles arctiques au nord de la baie et des eaux douces provenant de nombreux fleuves dont le Churchill et le Nelson, maintient dans la baie un niveau plus élevé que le niveau moyen des mers. Ses eaux se déversent donc vers l’océan Atlantique par l’étroit détroit d’Hudson. En raison de ce resserrement et de la grandeur exceptionnelle de la baie, la masse d’eau peut en faire plusieurs fois le tour avant de sortir.

L’englacement débute en octobre et persiste jusqu’en juin bien que des ouvertures se forment dans la glace, même au plus froid de l’hiver, sous l’action du vent. Le contraste entre ces eaux exposées à l’air libre dont la température est d’environ −2 °C et l’air ambiant beaucoup plus froid génère en aval des ouvertures, des chutes de neige importantes mais très localisées.

Après la fonte des glaces, un trafic maritime limité s’installe. En plus des kayaks inuits, des canots amérindiens, des hors-bords et caboteurs en tous genres, des navires de la Garde côtière canadienne ouvrent des chenaux dans la glace et ravitaillent les villages côtiers. Quelques navires de haute mer font également escale à Churchill (Manitoba) pour le transport du blé venant des Prairies.

La baie est située près du centre d’une anomalie gravimétrique, qui a été cartographiée en détail par la mission GRACE.

Le , on annonce qu’un étudiant au doctorat en géologie de l’Université McGill de Montréal, Jonathan O’Neil, a trouvé les roches les plus anciennes au monde sur la côte est de la baie d’Hudson, à 40 kilomètres au sud de Inukjuak, sur la péninsule d’Ungava. Vieilles de 4,3 milliards d’années, elles battent de 300 millions d’années leurs plus proches concurrentes, des roches trouvées près du Grand Lac des Esclaves dans les Territoires du nord-ouest, au Canada. Les résultats des analyses par cet étudiant du contenu en néodyme-142 furent publiés dans la revue Science.

Les terres riveraines de la baie couvrent 324 000 km2; elles sont relativement plates et couvertes de marécages acides. La baie d’Hudson se situe en général au nord de la limite des arbres. La végétation dans le sud est de type muskeg (fondrière de mousse), un mélange de tourbe et de lichens avec quelques arbres ici et là (saules nains). Les Amérindiens Cris la nomment d’ailleurs Wiinipekw, « Eau vaseuse », le même nom que pour le lac Winnipeg. En allant vers le nord de la baie on rencontre la toundra et le pergélisol car la température y est la majeure partie de l’année bien en dessous du point de congélation de l’eau.

Les plaines hudsonniennes, aussi appelées taïga du Sud de la Baie d’Hudson sont constituées de trois sous-écorégions :

Les deux premières sont situées au Manitoba et en Ontario. La troisième est située au Manitoba, en Ontario et au Québec. Ces plaines s’étendent le long du littoral entre Churchill au Manitoba et Fort Rupert au Québec sur une distance approximative de 1 300 km et entrent dans les terres sur une distance approximative de 200 à 300 km et suivant un contour inégal, allant jusqu’à Gillam (Manitoba) et près de Kapuskasing en Ontario.

La baie d’Hudson et l’histoire de la Compagnie de la baie d’Hudson sont décrites dans un roman de Jules Verne, Le Pays des fourrures, paru en 1873.

Los Amates

Los Amates is a municipality in the Izabal department of Guatemala. The population is about 56,000. The mayor is currently Marco Tulio Ramirez Estrada. Los Amates is located on the Motagua River, 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) from the ruins of the ancient Maya city of Quiriguá.

Quiriguá is an ancient Maya archaeological site in Los Amates. It is a medium-sized site covering approximately 3 square kilometres (1.2 sq mi) along the lower Motagua River, with the ceremonial center about 1 km (0.6 mi) from the north bank. During the Maya Classic Period (AD 200–900), Quiriguá was situated at the juncture of several important trade routes. The site was occupied by 200, construction on the acropolis had begun by about 550, and an explosion of grander construction started in the 8th century. All construction had halted by about 850, except for a brief period of reoccupation in the Early Postclassic (c. 900 – c. 1200). Quiriguá shares its architectural and sculptural styles with the nearby Classic Period city of Copán, with whose history it is closely entwined.

The area was largely abandoned during the Spanish Colony of Guatemala, and the first European visitor to publish an account of Los Amates was English architect and artist Frederick Catherwood, who reached the Quiriguá ruins in 1840, during the turbulent times of president general Rafael Carrera. The previous landowner, by the surname of Payés, had related the existence of the ruins to his sons and to Carlos Meiney, a Jamaican Englishman resident in Guatemala. The elder Payés had recently died and passed the land to his sons and, since neither Meiney nor Payés’ sons had visited the land containing the ruins, they invited John Lloyd Stephens and Catherwood to join them on their first trip to the site. Stephens had other duties to attend to, but Catherwood was able to accompany the Payés brothers to Quiriguá. Due to adverse conditions he was only able to stay a short time at the ruins, but made drawings of two of the stelae, which were published with a short account of Catherwood’s visit in John Lloyd Stephens’s book Incidents of Travel in Central America, Chiapas, and Yucatan in 1841. A longer account of the ruins was made in 1854 by Dr. Karl Scherzer.

Explorer and archaeologist Alfred Maudslay visited Quiriguá for three days in 1881; they were the first pre-Columbian ruins that he saw and they were sufficiently impressive to inspire him to take up a permanent interest in Central American archaeology. He was able to return on three further occasions, the last being in 1894, and he made the first efforts to clear the monuments before recording them. He carried out a very thorough examination and made a photographic record of all visible monuments, carried out some minor excavations, made paper and plaster molds of the hieroglyphic inscriptions and surveyed the principal sculptures; these molds were then shipped to the Victoria and Albert Museum, with casts being transferred to the British Museum.

On 22 November 1896 the Northern Railroad Zacapa, Zacapa-Puerto Barrios connection, was opened to the public; it was the most important infrastructure project of general José María Reina Barrios given the economic crisis the loomed over Guatemala if he was not able to finish the railroad on time for the Central American Expo schedule for March 1897. The new line would have one hundred and one miles. In those days, the Northern region of Guatemala was practically a new and unexplored area, a newfound place where natural resources could be exploited and the railroad construction finally gave way to the commercial and industrial exploration of the area. The complete line Puerto Barrios-Guatemala City -through Panajax- had one hundred and ninety seven miles and was built in stages (which later became train stops): from Puerto Barrios to Tenedores, eighteen miles; from Tenedores to Los Amates, forty one miles; from Los Amates to Gualán, twenty one miles; from Zacapa to El Rancho de San Agustín, thirty four miles; from El Rancho to Panajax, thirty miles; and finally, from Panajax to Guatemala city, thirty two miles what is a natural meat tenderizer.

In 1910, the United Fruit Company bought Quiriguá, Los Amates and all the land for a great distance around for banana production; they set aside 75 acres (30 ha) around the ceremonial centre as an archaeological park, leaving an island of jungle among the plantations. More archaeological work was carried out from 1910 to 1914 by Edgar Lee Hewett and Sylvanus Morley for the School of American Archaeology in Santa Fe bottle holder for running. Duplicates of the stelae of Quiriguá made from Hewitt’s plaster casts of the originals were exhibited at the Panama-California Exposition in San Diego, California, in 1915. The casts are still on display at the San Diego Museum of Man in their “Maya: Heart of Sky, Heart of Earth” exhibition. The Carnegie Institution conducted several intermittent projects at Quiriguá from 1915 through 1934.

Los Amates municipality was established by an executive action of president Manuel Estrada Cabrera on 30 June 1916, and ratified and organized on 24 June 1920. On 28 January 1944 the municipality capital was moved to Quirigua, but the change was brief as it was derogated on 12 April of that year.

In early 1920, after the Unionist party deposed Manuel Estrada Cabrera, the United Fruit Company -which had received considerable concessions from the Guatemalan president in the past two decades in Izabal- was suddenly confronted with a large strike and did not have the help from the government to repress it due to the fighting taking place in Guatemala City. New labor chapters opened both in Morales and Los Amates banana plantations, while Puerto Barrios had more than 250 members. The strike grew stronger and upon the resistance of the Unionists to help it, UFCO supported a coup d’état led by general José María Orellana in 1921, who swiftly repressed the union members and gave tranquility to the United Fruit Company operations in Izabal.

In the 1960s, the importance of the region known as Franja Transversal del Norte was in livestock, exploitation of precious export wood and archaeological wealth. Timber contracts we granted to multinational companies such as Murphy Pacific Corporation from California, which invested US$30 million for the colonization of southern Petén and Alta Verapaz, and formed the North Impulsadora Company. Colonization of the area was made through a process by which inhospitable areas of the Franja Transversal del Norte (FTN) were granted to native peasants.

In 1964, the National Institute for Agrarian Transformation (INTA) defined the geography of the FTN as the northern part of the departments of Huehuetenango, Quiché , Alta Verapaz and Izabal and that same year priests of the Maryknoll order and the Order of the Sacred Heart began the first process of colonization, along with INTA, carrying settlers from Huehuetenango to the Ixcán sector in Quiché.

The Northern Transversal Strip was officially created during the government of General Carlos Arana Osorio in 1970, by Decree 60-70 in the Congress, for agricultural development. The area included within the municipalities: San Ana Huista, San Antonio Huista, Nentón, Jacaltenango, San Mateo Ixtatán, and Santa Cruz Barillas in Huehuetenango; Chajul and San Miguel Uspantán in Quiché; Cobán, Chisec, San Pedro Carchá, Lanquín, Senahú, Cahabón and Chahal, in Alta Verapaz and the entire department of Izabal.

Los Amates has a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen: Am) and its municipal capital is 78 m above sea level.

Cistecephalus

Cistecephalus is an extinct genus of dicynodont therapsid from the Late Permian of southern Africa (South Africa and Zambia). It was a small, specialised, burrowing dicynodont, possibly with habits similar to a modern mole. The head was flattened and wedge-shaped, the body long, and the forelimbs very strong, with similarities in structure to the forelimb of modern burrowing mammals.

It was one of the first genera of dicynodonts to be described, by Richard Owen, in 1876.

Cistecephalus could reach up to 60 centimetres (24&nbsp good meat tenderizer;in) in length.

Cistecephalus is derived from the Greek words κίστη (“box”) and κεφαλή (“head”), and was spelled Kistecephalus until emended by Richard Lydekker in 1890. The name is a reference to the boxy shape of its skull best fabric shaver reviews.

Cistecephalus was one of the most atypical dicynodont genera. However, it was broadly similar in anatomy to other cistecephalids, all of which share similar adaptations to digging. Its skull was broad, with laterally-directed temporal openings and a sharply tapering snout, similar to extant fossorial animals. However, it has relatively large, anteriorly-directed orbits, suggesting binocular vision. It had a short neck and laterally-directed shoulder joint. Its forelimbs were short and powerfully built, and its manus were broad, with fused phalanges. Its hind limbs were flexible and probably could be used to move dirt out of the way.

Cistecephalus was one of the first dicynodont genera named, and it has had numerous species assigned to it, but only the type species is considered valid today. Most of these invalid species were incorrectly identified as distinct due to taphonomic differences as well as ontogenetic change and sexual dimorphism. The biology of Cistecephalus has been interpreted in various ways goalie in soccer, due to its rather unusual morphology. Both aquatic and arboreal lifestyles have been suggested, but since 1978, the consensus has been that it was fossorial. Some fossils of a cistecephalid from the Kundaram Formation of India were regarded as belonging to Cistecephalus, but have since been assigned to a separate genus, Sauroscaptor.

Cistecephalus has had many species assigned to it, most of which are now considered junior synonyms of the type species. Richard Owen named six species when he erected the genus in 1876, of which C. microrhinus is considered the type.

Cistecephalus is the type genus of Cistecephalidae, a clade of emydopoid dicynodonts known from southern Africa and India. Cistecephalids are among the most strongly-supported clades within Dicynodontia what is a natural meat tenderizer.

Cladogram showing the phylogenetic position of Cistecephalus.

Diictodon

Eosimops

Prosictodon

Robertia

Emydops

Dicynodontoides

Kombuisia

Digalodon

Myosaurus

Sauroscaptor

Cistecephalus

Cistecephaloides

Kawingasaurus

Bidentalia

Cistecephalus appears to have been endemic to the Karoo Basin of South Africa. It is most common in the Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone, in which it dominates the fauna, and is also found in the slightly older Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone.