Sepulca

Las sepulcas son un concepto literario fantástico empleado por el escritor polaco Stanisław Lem. Las nombra por primera vez en el cuento Viaje 14º (Podróz czternasta), en el que se narra la estancia de Ijon Tichy en Enteropia, publicado en libro por primera vez en la primera colección titulada Diarios de las estrellas (Dzienniki gwiazdowe), de 1957. La idea de las sepulcas resurge en la novela Regreso a Entia (Wizja lokalna, 1982).

Se sabe de las sepulcas que se emplean para sepular y que desempeñan un papel de primer orden en la cultura de los ardritas, habitantes de Enteropia: por todas partes pueden verse anuncios de sepulcas en las calles de sus ciudades. Sin embargo, Ijon Tichy no logra obtener información sobre ellas durante su estancia allí, dado que la de las sepulcas es una conversación prohibida, y se considera un error. En principio, parecen ser algo relacionado con el erotismo, pero los intentos de comprarlas, así como la insinuación de su empleo por un solo individuo, obtienen como respuesta una gran indignación.​

Las sepulcas son muy parecidas a las murquías, y de un color que recuerda al de las delicadas pimas; pero, claro está, su uso es muy diferente.​ Las pimas y las murquías fueron borradas del universo por una máquina de Trurl en Cómo se salvó el mundo, una de las historias de Fábulas de robots.​

Ijon Tichy tomó la definición de sepulcas de la Enciclopedia cósmica (Encyklopedia kosmiczna) que tenía el Profesor Tarantoga:

SEPULCAS – Importantísimo elemento de la civilización de los ardritas (v.) del planeta Enteropia (v). Ver SEPULCARIA.
SEPULCARIAS – Objetos que sirven para la sepulación (ver).
SEPULACION – Actividad de los ardritas (v.) del planeta Enteropia (v.). Ver SEPULCAS.

En cualquier caso, en la novela Regreso a Entia, Ijon Tichy se entera por boca del Profesor Tarantoga de que la entrada sobre Enteropia de la Enciclopedia Cósmica es una estafa y obra de un oportunista, cosa que tenía que haberle advertido a tiempo, pero, despistado como buen sabio, se le olvidó.​​​

En la vida real, una familia de insectos himenópteros fósiles lejanamente emparentados con las actuales moscas de sierra fue identificada por el paleoentomólogo soviético Aleksandr Rasnitsyn (Александр Расницын). Su colega Kirill Eskov (Кирилл Еськов), que además de paleoentomólogo es escritor (entre otros subgéneros, de ciencia ficción), le puso a la familia el nombre de sepúlcidos (Sepulcidae) en honor a Stanisław Lem. La familia comprende los géneros Sepulca, Sepulenia y Prosyntexis.​

Del misterioso objeto de Lem tomarían su nombre unos premios polacos de literatura fantástica que comenzaron a entregarse en 1983: los Złota Sepulka (Sepulca de Oro) 5 gal glass water bottle.

El periodista y escritor polaco Wojciech Orliński elaboró un diccionario de claves de la vida y la obra de Lem que ofrece además fotos del álbum familiar de Lem y reproducciones de portadas: Co to są sepulki? Wszystko o Lemie (¿Qué son las sepulcas? Todo sobre Lem). Cuenta con ilustraciones de Daniel Mróz.​

En ruso cool sports water bottles, la palabra «сепулька» se ha extendido como sinónimo de círculo vicioso en las definiciones.

En la película soviética de dibujos animados de 1986 Из дневников Ийона Тихого. Путешествие на Интеропию (De los diarios de Ijon Tichy: viaje a Enteropia), con guion y dirección de Guennadi Tischenko (Геннадий Тищенко, n. 1948), aparecen las sepulcas como núcleos en los que, tras una lluvia de meteoritos, se restauran los ardritas a partir de sus copias de seguridad.​

Jadwiga Karolina Żak

Jadwiga Karolina Żak CSFN, siostra Maria Imelda od Jezusa Hostii (ur. 29 grudnia 1892 w Oświęcimiu, zm. 1 sierpnia 1943 pod Nowogródkiem) – polska siostra zakonna, nazaretanka, błogosławiona Kościoła katolickiego.

13 maja 1911 roku wstąpiła do zgromadzenia. W nowicjacie w Albano Laziale złożyła śluby zakonne. W 1936 przyjechała do Nowogródka electric fluff remover. W latach 1922-30 pracowała jako nauczycielka i wychowawczyni w Gimnazjum “Nazaretanek” w Stryju case waterproof. Pracowała jako nauczycielka i wychowawczyni w internacie small stainless steel thermos. Po wybuchu II wojny światowej była zakrystianką w nowogródzkim kościele farnym pw 5 gal glass water bottle. Przemienienia Pańskiego. Pierwsze represje spotkały siostrę ze strony sowieckiego okupanta. Po wkroczeniu Niemców oddała życie za mieszkańców miasta i została rozstrzelana przez gestapo w lasku pod Nowogródkiem razem z 10 innymi siostrami zakonnymi.

W pozostawionych zapiskach błogosławionej siostry Mari Imeldy czytamy:

Została beatyfikowana przez papieża Jana Pawła II 5 marca 2000 roku w grupie 11 męczennic z Nowogródka.

David Finckel

David Finckel (born December 6, 1951) is an American cellist and influential figure in the classical music world. The cellist for the Emerson String Quartet from 1979 to 2013 football design t shirts, Finckel is currently the co-artistic director of the Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center, founder and co-artistic director of Music@Menlo, co-artistic director of Chamber Music Today and the Mendelssohn Fellowship in Korea, professor of cello at the Juilliard School, and visiting professor of music at Stony Brook University.

Born into a family of cellists, David Finckel began his musical studies with his father, Edwin Finckel. At the age of 15 he made his debut with the Philadelphia Orchestra in Tchaikovsky’s Rococo Variations as winner of the orchestra’s junior competition, and two years later returned to capture the senior division prize and another appearance with the orchestra, playing the Schumann Concerto. At 17, David played for Mstislav Rostropovich drink bottles, and soon after became the great cellist’s first American pupil. His studies spanned a nine-year period, culminating in a performance of Prokofiev’s Sinfonia Concertante with the Basel Symphony under Rostropovich’s direction 5 gal glass water bottle. Finckel was the first winner of the New England Conservatory Piatigorsky Artist Award, chosen from an international field for his excellence as soloist, chamber musician, and teacher. In 1979, he became a member of the award-winning Emerson String Quartet.

Finckel performs and records frequently in collaboration with pianist Wu Han, whom he married in 1985. Since the 1990s, the two artists have toured widely year-round and have emerged as one of the most popular cello-piano duos on the musical scene today. Notable duo concerts include their performances of the complete Beethoven cycle throughout the world as well as appearing on all the major series in the United States. Finckel and Wu Han also often appear in concert with violinist Philip Setzer.

Recent appearances as orchestral soloist include Elgar’s Cello Concerto with the Slovenia Symphony Orchestra, Shostakovich’s First Concerto and the Beethoven Triple Concerto with the Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra, as well as performances and recordings of the Dvořák Concerto and Augusta Read Thomas’s Ritual Incantations with the Taipei Symphony Orchestra, John Harbison’s Cello Concerto with the Albany Symphony Orchestra, and Haydn’s Concerto in C Major with the Louisiana Philharmonic Orchestra.

A member of the Emerson String Quartet since 1979, Finckel has participated in over 30 acclaimed recordings produced with Deutsche Grammophon since 1987, nine Grammy Awards (including two for best classical album, an unprecedented honor for a chamber music group), three Gramophone Awards, the coveted Avery Fisher Prize and cycles of the complete Beethoven, Bartók, Mendelssohn and Shostakovich string quartets in the world’s musical capitals. The Emerson String Quartet took its name from the American poet and philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson. Besides David Finckel on the cello, the Emerson String Quartet is composed of violinists Eugene Drucker and Philip Setzer who alternate in the first chair position and violist Lawrence Dutton. Finckel ended his tenure at the quartet at the conclusion of the 2012–13 season; he was replaced by Paul Watkins.

In addition to his work as a performer, Finckel has established a reputation for his dynamic and innovative approach to the recording studio. In 1997, David Finckel and Wu Han launched ArtistLed, classical music’s first musician-directed and Internet-based recording company, whose catalogue of sixteen albums has won widespread acclaim. BBC Music Magazine saluted the launch by featuring the company’s debut album on the cover of its January 1997 issue. Finckel is a controlling participant in every aspect of the recording process, from selecting the repertoire and recording venue to setting the sound, running the sessions, constructing the edits, and determining the final mix. ArtistLed’s Grammy Award-winning recording engineer is Da-Hong Seetoo.

In 2003, Finckel co-founded Music@Menlo, an annual chamber music festival and institute in Silicon Valley that brings to the San Francisco Bay Area a lineup of accomplished musicians, scholars, educators, and musicologists, as well as a roster of gifted young artists, for an immersive three-week chamber music experience in the summer.

Finckel was instrumental in the formation of Music@Menlo’s live recording series, Music@Menlo LIVE, which commercially releases live recordings from the festival each year. The label was launched in 2004 and has been praised as “probably the most ambitious recording project of any classical music festival in the world” (San Jose Mercury News).

In 2004, David Finckel was appointed co-Artistic Director of the Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center in New York City, where he currently presents some 200 concerts reusable water bottles for kids bpa free, lectures, master classes, and outreach events each season. The Chamber Music Society is recognized as one of the leaders in the field of chamber music in North America. In 2013, Finckel was invited to extend his appointment for a third five-year term, the longest artistic director tenure since that of founding Artistic Director Charles Wadsworth. Since becoming co-artistic director, CMS has expanded its recording and touring initiatives, establishing performance and educational residencies across the United States, Asia and Europe.

In 2011, David Finckel became co-director of Chamber Music Today, an annual chamber music festival and institute in Seoul, South Korea, that brings to the Far East the world’s greatest chamber musicians.

In 2004, David Finckel created the Chamber Music Institute at Music@Menlo. The institute offers a rigorous professional training ground and a wide array of performance opportunities to gifted young musicians who have been selected from conservatories, youth orchestras, and music programs nationally and internationally.

In 2009, under the auspices of the Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center, Finckel established a chamber music training workshop for young artists in Korea and Taiwan, intensive residency programs designed to bring student musicians into contact with an elite faculty of artists including pianist Leon Fleisher and violinist Arnold Steinhardt. As co-artistic director of the Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center, Finckel has been instrumental in the expansion of the society’s CMS Two program that invites outstanding young musicians from around the world through audition to join the CMS artist roster for an extended residency that includes both performance and educational outreach opportunities. Under his leadership, the residency program has expanded from two to three years and has greatly increased the level of participation of these young artists.

Visiting Aspen Music Festival nearly his entire career, Finckel founded a chamber music studio there in summer 2013 as an intensive three-week workshop for young festival musicians.

Finckel has presented master classes at venerable institutions throughout the world and for many years taught alongside the late Isaac Stern at Carnegie Hall and the Jerusalem Music Centre. He has also served as a member of the artist-faculty at the Aspen Music Festival and School for many years, and in various educational outreach programs across the country. Finckel also created Cello Talks, an innovative series of videos about every aspect of cello playing. For two decades, with the Emerson String Quartet, Finckel taught at the University of Hartford’s Hartt School.

In 2002, Finckel and the Emerson String Quartet joined the faculty of Stony Brook University, where he coaches chamber music, gives master classes, and provides instrumental instruction. David joined the Juilliard cello faculty in 2012.