The Attic (1980 film)

The Attic is a 1980 American horror-thriller film starring Carrie Snodgress and directed by George Edwards giuseppe zanotti shoes.

Louise (Carrie Snodgress), a librarian, devotes her life to caring for her controlling, wheelchair-ridden father, Wendel (Ray Milland) after her fiancé disappears the night before their wedding. She fantasizes about her father’s death, and only finds joy with Emily (Ruth Cox)–a fellow librarian who is being trained as Louise’s replacement (Louise is being fired for attempting to burn down the library)–and a pet monkey (who Louise names Dickie) that Emily buys for Louise. While wheeling her father up a hill at a local park one Sunday afternoon, Wendel’s wheelchair tips over, and he falls out. Wendel reflexively picks himself up and it is revealed he was never disabled to begin with, and he lied to Louise all this time in order to enslave her to him. In a fit of rage, Louise pushes Wendel down the hill and he is killed when his head hits a rock. Louise then runs home to gather her few belongings, and some of her father’s money hoping to run away. While searching her father’s belongings

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, she comes across a key to the attic, which has long been boarded up

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. She enters the attic that night and discovers that Dickie and her fiancé

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, Robert, have both been killed by her father and placed in the attic

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Critical reception for The Attic has been mixed. TV Guide awarded the film 2 / 4 stars calling it “A fair psychological thriller”.
The film was released on DVD by MGM on August 27, 2002 as a double feature with Crawlspace.

Звуки музыки (фильм)

мюзикл фильм-биография драма мелодрама семейный фильм
Роберт Уайз
Роберт Уайз
Говард Линдсей (книга) Рассел Круз (книга) Эрнест Леман Мария фон Трапп (автобиография)
Джули Эндрюс Кристофер Пламмер Ричард Гайдн Пегги Вуд Анна Ли Бен Райт Элинор Паркер
Тед Ди Мак Корд
Ричард Роджерс
XX век Фокс, Robert Wise Productions
174 мин.
8 020 000 долл.
286 214 286 долл.
США США
английский язык
1965
ID 0059742
«Звуки музыки» (англ bogner одежда. The Sound of Music) — фильм-мюзикл, снятый в 1965 году Робертом Уайзом, главную роль в котором исполнила Джули Эндрюс. Лента представляет собой экранизацию одноимённого бродвейского мюзикла, музыку и слова для которого написали Ричард Роджерс и Оскар Хаммерстайн II, авторами либретто выступили Говард Линдсея и Рассел Круз. Киносценарий написан Эрнестом Леманом. Фильм удостоен пяти премий Американской академии киноискусств.
В основу самого мюзикла легла книга Марии фон Трапп «Семья певцов фон Трапп» (англ. The Story of the Trapp Family Singers). В него вошли многие популярные песни, среди которых «Edelweiss», «My Favorite Things», «Climb Ev’ry Mountain», «Do-Re-Mi», «Sixteen Going on Seventeen», «The Lonely Goatherd», а также песня, вынесенная в заглавие.
Съёмки киноверсии проходили в Зальцбурге (Австрия), Баварии (Германия), а также в Калифорнии на студии «XX век Фокс». Фильм снят на 70-мм киноплёнку в формате Todd-AO Тедом Д. Мак Кордом.

Действие происходит в городе Зальцбурге. Мария, молодая женщина, намеревающаяся стать монахиней, из-за своего характера направлена из монастыря в дом овдовевшего морского капитана Георга Людвига фон Траппа в качестве гувернантки для его семерых детей. Поначалу дети отнеслись к ней не вполне дружелюбно и пытались вредничать, однако bogner одежда, после того, как Мария приобщила их к пению, всем сердцем полюбили её. Мария же обнаруживает, что сама влюблена в капитана, который оказался помолвлен с состоятельной баронессой, и решает уйти. Но и капитан неравнодушен к гувернантке. Баронесса видит это и отпускает его, чтобы они могли быть вместе.
В результате присоединения страны к фашистской Германии в Австрии устанавливается нацистский режим, и капитана фон Траппа пытаются вернуть на военную службу. Он, не желая служить Рейху, задерживает своё отправление, настойчиво убеждая гаулейтера Целлера в том bogner одежда, что, являясь участником семейного ансамбля певцов фон Трапп, он обязательно должен быть с ними во время выступления на Зальцбургском городском музыкальном фестивале, в охраняемом театре bogner одежда, и что после концерта обязательно поедет служить. Однако после выступления, не явившись на вручение присуждённого первого приза, вся семья сбегает и перебирается через горы в Швейцарию.
Для всех песен, кроме отмеченных особо, музыку написал Ричард Роджерс (Richard Rodgers), а слова — Оскар Хаммерстайн II.
В порядке исполнения:
Крылья (1927/28) • Бродвейская мелодия (1929) • На западном фронте без перемен (1930) • Симаррон (1931) • Гранд-отель (1932) • Кавалькада (1933) • Это случилось однажды ночью (1934) • Мятеж на «Баунти» (1935) • Великий Зигфелд (1936) • Жизнь Эмиля Золя (1937) • С собой не унесёшь (1938) • Унесённые ветром (1939) • Ребекка (1940)
Как зелена была моя долина (1941) • Миссис Минивер (1942) • Касабланка (1943) • Идти своим путём (1944) • Потерянный уикэнд (1945) • Лучшие годы нашей жизни (1946) • Джентльменское соглашение (1947) • Гамлет (1948) • Вся королевская рать (1949) • Всё о Еве (1950) • Американец в Париже (1951) • Величайшее шоу мира (1952) • Отныне и во веки веков (1953) • В порту (1954) • Марти (1955) • Вокруг света за 80 дней (1956) • Мост через реку Квай (1957) • Жижи (1958) • Бен-Гур (1959) • Квартира (1960)
Вестсайдская история (1961) • Лоуренс Аравийский (1962) • Том Джонс (1963) • Моя прекрасная леди (1964) • Звуки музыки (1965) • Человек на все времена (1966) • Душной южной ночью (1967) • Оливер! (1968) • Полуночный ковбой (1969) • Паттон (1970) • Французский связной (1971) • Крёстный отец (1972) • Афера (1973) • Крёстный отец 2 (1974) • Пролетая над гнездом кукушки (1975) • Рокки (1976) • Энни Холл (1977) • Охотник на оленей (1978) • Крамер против Крамера (1979) • Обыкновенные люди (1980)
Огненные колесницы (1981) • Ганди (1982) • Язык нежности (1983) • Амадей (1984) • Из Африки (1985) • Взвод (1986) • Последний император (1987) • Человек дождя (1988) • Шофёр мисс Дэйзи (1989) • Танцующий с волками (1990) • Молчание ягнят (1991) • Непрощённый (1992) • Список Шиндлера (1993) • Форрест Гамп (1994) • Храброе сердце (1995) • Английский пациент (1996) • Титаник (1997) • Влюблённый Шекспир (1998) • Красота по-американски (1999) • Гладиатор (2000)
Игры разума (2001) • Чикаго (2002) • Властелин колец: Возвращение короля (2003) • Малышка на миллион (2004) • Столкновение (2005) • Отступники (2006) • Старикам тут не место (2007) • Миллионер из трущоб (2008) • Повелитель бури (2009) • Король говорит! (2010) • Артист (2011) • Операция «Арго» (2012) • 12 лет рабства (2013) • Бёрдмэн (2014) • В центре внимания (2015)
Американец в Париже (1951) • С песней в моём сердце (1952) • премия не вручалась (1953) • Кармен Джонс (1954) • Парни и куколки (1955) • Король и я (1956) • Девушки (1957) • Тётушка Мэйм (комедия) + Жижи (мюзикл, 1958) • В джазе только девушки (комедия) + Порги и Бесс (мюзикл, 1959) • Квартира (комедия) + Нескончаемая песня (мюзикл, 1960)
Величие одного (комедия) + Вестсайдская история (мюзикл, 1961) • Женщина в мехах (комедия) + Музыкант (мюзикл, 1962) • Том Джонс (1963) • Моя прекрасная леди (1964) • Звуки музыки (1965) • Русские идут bogner одежда! Русские идут! (1966) • Выпускник (1967) • Оливер! (1968) • Тайна Санта-Виттории (1969) • Военно-полевой госпиталь (1970) • Скрипач на крыше (1971) • Кабаре (1972) • Американские граффити (1973) • Всё или ничего (1974) • Солнечные мальчики (1975) • Рождение звезды (1976) • До свидания, дорогая (1977) • Небеса могут подождать (1978) • Уходя в отрыв (1979) • Дочь шахтёра (1980)
Артур (1981) • Тутси (1982) • Йентл (1983) • Роман с камнем (1984) • Честь семьи Прицци (1985) • Ханна и её сёстры (1986) • Надежда и слава (1987) • Деловая девушка (1988) • Шофёр мисс Дэйзи (1989) • Вид на жительство (1990) • Красавица и Чудовище (1991) • Игрок (1992) • Миссис Даутфайр (1993) • Король Лев (1994) • Бэйб: Четвероногий малыш (1995) • Эвита (1996) • Лучше не бывает (1997) • Влюблённый Шекспир (1998) • История игрушек 2 (1999) • Почти знаменит (2000)
Мулен Руж! (2001) • Чикаго (2002) • Трудности перевода (2003) • На обочине (2004) • Переступить черту (2005) • Девушки мечты (2006) • Суини Тодд, демон-парикмахер с Флит-стрит (2007) • Вики Кристина Барселона (2008) • Мальчишник в Вегасе (2009) • Детки в порядке (2010) • Артист (2011) • Отверженные (2012) • Афера по-американски (2013) • Отель «Гранд Будапешт» (2014) • Марсианин (2015)

Hellmuth Hirth

 Hellmuth Hirth (help·info) (April 24, 1886 – July 1, 1938) was a German engineer who founded the Mahle GmbH and Hirth companies, manufacturing engine components and complete aircraft engines respectively

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Hirth was born in Heilbronn, the son of engineer and tool-maker Albert Hirth

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. He was the elder brother of Wolf Hirth who would go on to become a famous sailplane designer and manufacturer.
As a young man, Hirth was sent to the United States to train with the Edison General Electric Company as a mechanic. While abroad, he developed an interest in aircraft, and on his return to Germany in 1909 became involved with this emerging industry. He built his own aircraft in 1910 and soon went to work for the Zeppelin Company building airships

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. He also became a prominent pilot

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He was deported from the United States for bigamy.
In 1920, he founded his own company to manufacture engine components out of light alloys, and by 1927 split the company in order to focus more closely on the aero engine side of the business

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He was killed in a plane crash in 1938 at Karlsbad.

Robert Calder

Admiral Robert Calder (* 1745

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; † 1. September 1818) war ein britischer Seeoffizier während des Siebenjährigen Krieges, des Amerikanischen Unabhängigkeitskrieges, der Französische Revolutionskriege und der Napoleonischen Kriege.
Calder assistierte Admiral John Jervis als Flottenadmiral während der Seeschlacht von Kap St. Vincent im Jahre 1797. Im Dritten Koalitionskrieg kommandierte Calder die Blockadeflotte vor den Häfen von Rochefort und Ferrol.
Am 22

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. Juli 1805 begegnete er einem französisch-spanischen Flottenverband von 20 Schiffen die von Admiral Pierre de Villeneuve befehligt wurden. Die sich daraus entwickelnde Seeschlacht von Kap Finisterre war eine empfindliche Niederlage für die Franzosen. 15 britische Schiffe kämpften gegen 20 französisch-spanische Schiffe. Letztlich wurden zwei spanische Schiffe gekapert. Die britischen Verluste beliefen sich auf 39 getötete Offiziere und Mannschaften, sowie 159 Verwundete. Auf alliierter Seite wurden 476 Seeleute getötet oder verwundet.
Viel wichtiger aber war, dass Admiral Villeneuve sein Vorhaben nicht durchführen konnte. Er konnte keine Truppen in Irland an Land setzen und sein Plan scheiterte, seine Flotte mit der Flotte zu vereinigen, die im Hafen von Brest vor Anker lag

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Diese Vereinigung sollte dazu dienen, die britischen Kanalpatrouillen zu vertreiben und so Napoleons Invasion in Großbritannien zu unterstützen. So war die Armee d’Angleterre weiterhin dazu verurteilt, unnütz in Boulogne auf ihre Einschiffung zu warten. Die britische Öffentlichkeit und die Admiralität sahen den Ausgang der Schlacht allerdings in einem anderen Licht. Weil Calder es am 23. und 24. Juli versäumt hatte, der französischen Flotte zu folgen und sie in weitere Kämpfe zu verwickeln, wurde er seines Kommandos enthoben

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, vor dem Kriegsgericht angeklagt und verurteilt. Er bekam nie wieder ein Kommando auf See.

Cardes à la provençale

Les cardes à la provençale sont un mets traditionnel en Provence lors des fêtes de Noël. La carde ou cardon, légume originaire de l’Afrique du Nord, fut apprécié dès l’Antiquité romaine et revint à la mode en Europe à partir du XVIe siècle. Dans les départements de Vaucluse, Bouches-du-Rhône et Var

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, les cardes se consomment le plus souvent en tian.

La carde ou cardon, originaire de l’Afrique du Nord, est apparentée à l’artichaut. Sa culture n’impose qu’une seule contrainte, celle de faire blanchir les côtes en encerclant ses pousses dans du papier ou du plastique.
Présent dès l’Antiquité sur les tables des riches romains, il fut déprécié au Moyen Âge et ne revint à la mode qu’à partir du XVIe siècle. Ce légume d’hiver est une composante incontournable du gros souper et s’est imposé à partir du XIXe siècle en faisant la conquête des tables de la bourgeoisie aisée d’Avignon doudoune moncler, Aix et Marseille

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Pour consommer ce légume, il faut le faire pocher à l’eau bouillante dans laquelle a été ajoutée un peu de farine ou de la mie de pain pour éviter l’amertume. Il est ensuite accommodé en tian, soit avec des anchois, soit préparé avec une sauce blanche, ou encore des truffes. Les amateurs en croquent simplement les côtes blanchies accompagnées d’une sauce appelée pébrade (huile d’olive, anchois fondus, poivre).
Parmi les traditions de Noël en Provence, avant les 13 desserts, on proposait le tian de cardes aux truffes. Les cardes découpées sont blanchies dans de l’eau salée. L’ail et l’oignon, finement hachés, sont mis à blondir dans de l’huile d’olive, puis s’ajoutent les cardes et les filets d’anchois, qui sont saupoudrés de farine et mouillés. Après quelques minutes à feu doux, le tout est salé, poivré, puis parsemé de fines lamelles de truffe hors du feu. Il suffit de recouvrir quelques minutes pour que la truffe imprègne les cardes de son parfum. Ce mets est servi saupoudré de gruyère ou parmesan.
Aux anchois ou à la sauce blanche, le tian de cardes s’accorde avec le vin rosé : Côtes de Provence (Fréjus, Sainte-Victoire) le coq sportif vente, le Coteaux d’Aix-en-Provence, le Côtes du Roussillon, le Coteaux varois en Provence et le Coteaux du Pont du Gard,.

Der Wildschütz

Der Wildschütz oder Die Stimme der Natur (The Poacher, or The Voice of Nature) is a German Komische Oper, or comic opera, in three acts by Albert Lortzing from a libretto by the composer adapted from the comedy Der Rehbock, oder Die schuldlosen Schuldbewussten by August von Kotzebue. It had its premiere at the Stadttheater in Leipzig on 31 December 1842.

At the village hotel, the schoolmaster Baculus is celebrating his engagement to Gretchen. A hunter from the Count von Eberbach then arrives at the festivities with a letter telling Baculus that he has been dismissed from his schoolmaster post, as Baculus had earlier gone hunting on the count’s land without his permission. Baculus thinks to send Gretchen to change the count’s mind, but then recalls the count’s weakness for young women

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. The Baroness von Freimann, sister of the count and recently widowed, arrives disguised as a student to travel incognito. Her brother wants her to remarry with Baron Kronthal. The Baroness hears of Baculus’ misfortune, and offers herself to plead his case in place of Gretchen. The Count then comes on the scene with his shooting party, as does Baron Kronthal. Both the Count and the baron are immediately attracted to Gretchen. The entire party is then gathered for the count’s birthday celebration at his castle.
The Countess von Eberbach has a weakness for ancient tragedies, particularly Sophocles, and she bores her servant when she expounds on them. Pancratius, the house master, advises Baculus to exploit this feature to gain favour with the countess. Baculus impresses the countess with quotations from these ancient literary works

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. However, the Count sees this and tries to banish Baculus from the proceedings. Baculus then tries to enlist the Baroness with the idea of her appearing as Gretchen, in disguise. A storm then arises, and this forces Baculus and Gretchen to remain locked in the castle. During a billiards party, the lights suddenly go out. The Count and the Baron take the opportunity to surprise Gretchen. However, the Countess helps Baculus and Gretchen to escape. The baron then offers a reward of 5000 Taler for delivering Gretchen to him.
The Count’s birthday celebration is continuing. The “correct” Gretchen is now brought to the castle. The Baron notices that Gretchen seems different from before. Baculus then reveals that the “previous” Gretchen was a student in disguise. After Baculus is pressed further, the Baroness reveals her true identity. The Baron demands an explanation from Baculus

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, and later the Count adds his voice to ask for clarification

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. The countess eventually arrives as well. The confusion is finally clarified. In the end, Baculus and Gretchen are reunited, and Baculus is restored to his schoolmaster position. It also turns out that Baculus had accidentally shot his own donkey initially, rather than a deer on the count’s grounds.
Sources

Middle Dutch

Middle Dutch is a collective name for a number of closely related West Germanic dialects (whose ancestor was Old Dutch) spoken and written between 1150 and 1500. There was at that time as yet no overarching standard language but they were all mutually intelligible. During this period a rich Medieval Dutch literature developed, not yet present during the period of Old Dutch. The various literary works of that time are often very readable for modern Dutch speakers, since Dutch is a rather conservative language. By many non-linguists, Middle Dutch is often referred to as Diets.

Several phonological changes occurred leading up to the Middle Dutch period.
The consonants of Middle Dutch differed little from those of Old Dutch. The most prominent change is the loss of dental fricatives. The sound [z] was also phonemicised during this period, judging from loanwords that retain [s] to this day.
For descriptions of the sounds and definitions of the terms, follow the links on the headings.
Notes:
Most notable in the Middle Dutch vowel system, when compared to Old Dutch, is the appearance of phonemic rounded front vowels, and the merger of all unstressed short vowels.
The lengthening of vowels in open syllables, and often before /r/, created a contrast between originally long (“sharp-long” â, ê, ô) and lengthened (“soft-long” ā, ē, ō) vowels. These have all merged in modern standard Dutch, but they were still distinct in Middle Dutch, and developed differently in different dialects, although the spelling does not normally reveal this. The following points can be noted:
/ʏi/ only occurred in a small number of loanwords from French, such as fruyt/froyt /frʏit/ (Old French pronunciation [frɥit]). It is known that it eventually merged with /yː/ when the latter began to diphthongise.
The diphthongal character of /iə/ and /uə/ (spelled ⟨ie⟩ and ⟨oe⟩ in most texts) is not clear.
Despite unclear pronunciation, /iə/ ⟨ie⟩ clearly never merged with the long vowel /iː/ ⟨ij⟩. The two sounds were never allowed to rhyme, and developed differently into early modern Dutch. Thus, it is necessary that there was some contrast between the vowels, whether between opening diphthong and monophthong (in earlier Middle Dutch) or between monophthong and slight closing diphthong (in later Middle Dutch).
Phonological changes that occurred during Middle Dutch:
Middle Dutch was not a single homogenous language. The language differed by area, with different areas having a different pronunciation and often using different vocabulary. Often, the dialect areas were affected by political boundaries. The sphere of political influence of a certain ruler often also created a sphere of linguistic influence, with the language within the area becoming more homogenous. Following, more or less, the political divisions of the time, several large dialect groups can be distinguished. However, the borders between them were not strong, and a dialect continuum existed between them, with spoken varieties near the edges of each dialect area showing more features of the neighbouring areas.
Brabantian was spoken primarily in the Duchy of Brabant. It was an influential dialect during most of the Middle Ages, during the so-called “Brabantian expansion” in which the influence of Brabant was extended outwards into other areas. Compared to the other dialects

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, Brabantian was a kind of “middle ground” between the coastal areas on one hand, and the Rhineland and Limburg on the other. Brabantian Middle Dutch has the following characteristics compared to other dialects:
Flemish, consisting today of West and East Flemish and Zealandic, was spoken in the County of Flanders. It had been influential during the earlier Middle Ages (the “Flemish expansion”) but lost prestige to the neighbouring Brabantian in the 13th century. Its characteristics are:
Hollandic was spoken in the County of Holland. It was less influential during most of the Middle Ages but became more so in the 16th century during the “Hollandic expansion”, during which the Eighty Years’ War took place in the south. It shows the following properties:
Limburgish was spoken by the people in the provinces of modern Dutch and Belgian Limburg. It was not clearly tied to one political area, instead being divided among various area, including the Duchy of Limburg (which was south than modern Limburg). It was also the most divergent of the dialects, and today, it is no longer considered part of Dutch proper, but a separate Limburgish language.
Rhinelandic (“Kleverlands”) was spoken around the area of the Duchy of Cleves, around the Lower Rhine. It represented a transitional dialect between Limburgish and Middle Low German.
Middle Dutch was written in the Latin alphabet, which was not designed for writing Middle Dutch so different scribes used different methods of representing the sounds of their language in writing. The traditions of neighbouring scribes and their languages led to a multitude of ways to write Middle Dutch. Consequently, spelling was not standardised but was highly variable and could differ by both time and place as various “trends” in spelling waxed and waned. Furthermore, a word could be found spelled differently in different occurrences within the same text. There was the matter of personal taste, and many writers thought it was more aesthetic to follow French or Latin practice, leading to sometimes rather unusual spellings.
The spelling was generally phonetic, and words were written based on how they were spoken rather than based on underlying phonemes or morphology. Final-obstruent devoicing was reflected in the spelling, and clitic pronouns and articles were frequently joined to the preceding or following word. Scribes wrote in their own dialect, and their spelling reflected the pronunciation of that particular scribe or of some prestige dialect by ehich the scribe was influenced. The modern Dutch word maagd (“maiden”) for example was sometimes written as maghet or maegt, but also meget, magt, maget, magd, and mecht. Some spellings, such as magd, reflect an early tendency to write the underlying phonemic value. However, by and large, spelling was phonetic, which is logical as people usually read texts out loud.
Modern dictionaries tend to represent words in a normalised spelling to form a compromise between the variable spellings on one hand and to represent the sounds of the language consistently. Thus, normalised spellings attempt to be a general or “average” spelling but still being accurate and true to the language.
The general practice was to write long vowels with a single letter in an open syllable and with two letters in a closed syllable. Which two letters were used varied among texts. Some texts, especially those in the east, do not do so and write long vowels with a single letter in all cases (as is the predominant rule in modern German).
Middle Dutch pronouns differed little from their modern counterparts. The main differences were in the second person with the development of a T-V distinction. The second-person plural pronoun ghi slowly gained use as a respectful second-person singular form. The original singular pronoun du gradually fell out of use during the Middle Dutch period. A new second person plural pronoun was created by contracting gij/jij and lui (‘people’) forming gullie/jullie (which this literally means ‘you people’).
Middle Dutch had a case system. Since the Middle Ages Dutch has gradually lost an active case system

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, first in the spoken language and much later in the written language so it is now mostly limited to fixed expressions. The spelling reform of 1947 removed most remaining parts of the case system such as the accusative. However, Middle Dutch and Modern Dutch ae very similar, apart from the case system; one of the most prominent differences of contemporary Dutch is that it uses great numbers of prepositions, far more than Middle Dutch, to compensate with the loss of the case system. It has to be noted that even in Middle Dutch the use of prepositions, especially van, was very common. Furthermore, Middle Dutch would often use an accusative form instead of a nominative (Doe quam den edelen prince daer (“Then the noble prince arrived”), Dezen man sel op zijn hooft hebben een stalen helme (“This man will have a steel helmet on his head”)). It is still common in some southern dialects and in the Belgian Tussentaal. Similarly, the -n was sometimes omitted where it would be expected: in levende live (Modern Dutch in levenden lijve), des levende Gods instead of levenden (“of the living God”), van den lopende water instead of lopenden (“of the running water”).
The weakening of unstressed syllables merged many different Old Dutch classes of nominal declension. The result was a general distinction between strong (original vocalic stem) and weak (n-stem) nouns. Eventually even these started to become confused, with the strong and weak endings slowly beginning to merge into a single declension class by the beginning of the modern Dutch period.
Definite Article (die, dat = the)
Strong noun inflection (adjective clein = small, noun worm = worm, daet = deed/action, broot = bread)
Weak noun inflection (Nouns ending in “-e”) (adjective clein = small, noun hane = rooster, wonde = wound

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, beelde = image)
Middle Dutch mostly retained the Old Dutch verb system. Like all Germanic languages, it distinguished strong, weak and preterite-present verbs as the three main inflectional classes. However, the weakening of unstressed syllables made the two classes of weak verbs that still existed in Old Dutch merge into one.
The seven classes of strong verb common to the Germanic languages were retained, but over time, the older distinction between the singular and plural past was lost, with the singular forms generally adapting the stem of the plural (except in classes 4 and 5, whose distinction was by length rather than vowel timbre). Some weak verbs that had a vowel change in the past because of Rückumlaut eventually became strong

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, such as senden (with original past tense sande, but later also sand or sond). By analogy some strong verbs were also turned into weak verbs, sometimes only by adding the weak past ending -de. That might have occurred only for poetic reasons, however, such as in Karel ende Elegast where the form begonde (regularly began or begon) is found near the beginning of the text

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.
The weakening also affected the distinction between the indicative and subjunctive moods, which had largely been determined by the vowel of the inflectional suffix in Old Dutch. In Middle Dutch, with all unstressed vowels merging into one, the subjunctive became distinguished from the indicative only in the singular but was identical to it in the plural, and also in the past tense of weak verbs. That led to a gradual decline in the use of the subjunctive, and it has been all but lost entirely in modern Dutch. The forms of verbal conjugation for Middle Dutch are:

Edible frog

Pelophylax esculentus (Linnaeus, 1758) Rana esculenta Linnaeus, 1758
The edible frog (Pelophylax kl. esculentus) is a name for a common European frog, also known as the common water frog or green frog (however, this latter term is also used for the North American species Rana clamitans).
It is used for food

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, particularly in France for the delicacy frog legs. Females are between 5 to 9 cm long, males between 6 to 11 cm.

P. esculentus is endemic to Europe. It naturally occurs from the northern half of France to western Russia, and from Estonia and Denmark to Bulgaria and northern Italy. The edible frog is introduced in Spain and the United Kingdom. The natural range is nearly identical to that of P. lessonae.
Pelophylax kl

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. esculentus is the fertile hybrid of the pool frog (Pelophylax lessonae) and the marsh frog (Pelophylax ridibundus).
It reproduces by hybridogenesis (hemiclonally).
Hybridogenesis implies that hybrids (RL genotype) during gametogenesis exclude one parental genome (L or R) and produce gametes with unrecombined genome of second parental species (R or L respectively), instead of containing mixed recombined parental genomes.
And that the hybrid populations are propagated usually by mating (backcrosses) with sympatric one of the parental species – P. lessonae (LL) or P. ridibundus (RR) providing second, discarded parental genome (L or R respectively).
So hybridogenesis is a hemiclonal mode of reproduction – half of genome is transmitted to the next generation clonally, unrecombined (intact), other half sexually, recombined.
For example, in the most widespread so called L–E system edible frogs Pelophylax kl. esculentus (RE) produce gametes of the marsh frog P. ridibundus (R) and mate with coexisting with them pool frogs Pelophylax lessonae (L gametes) – see below in the middle.
Because this hybrid requires other taxon as sexual host to reproduce, usually one of parental species

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, it is klepton

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. Hence the addition of the “kl.” (for klepton) in the species name.
There are known also all-hybrid populations, where diploid hybrids (LR) coexist with triploid (LLR or LRR) hybrids providing L or R genomes respectively. Diploid hybrids (LR) generate here not only haploid R or L gametes, but also not reduced diploid gametes (RL) needed to recreate triploids.
A swimming frog
Copulation trial between two males
Proof of cannibalism
Close-up of the frog head
Close-up of the head, other perspective
Edible frog on a human arm
Home, swit home!

Jack DeJohnette discography

This is the discography for American jazz drummer, pianist and composer Jack DeJohnette

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.

With Gateway (with John Abercrombie and Dave Holland)
With Keith Jarrett
With Foday Musa Suso
With John Patitucci and Danilo Perez
With The Super Premium Band (with Kenny Barron and Ron Carter)
With John Abercrombie
With George Adams
With Cannonball Adderley
With Geri Allen
With Chet Baker
With Richard Beirach
With George Benson
With Joanne Brackeen
With Michael Brecker
With Henry Butler
With Betty Carter
With Ron Carter
With George Colligan
With Alice Coltrane and Carlos Santana
With Compost
With Bill Connors
With Chick Corea
With Miles Davis
With Paul Desmond
With Eliane Elias
With Bill Evans
With Antonio Faraò
With Joe Farrell
With Chico Freeman
With Jan Garbarek
With Stan Getz
With Benny Golson
With Mick Goodrick
With Johnny Hammond
With Herbie Hancock
With Joe Henderson
With Dave Holland
With Freddie Hubbard
With D

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. D

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. Jackson
With Keith Jarrett
With Hank Jones Great Jazz Trio
With Steve Khan
With Eric Kloss
With Eero Koivistoinen
With Lee Konitz
With Steve Kuhn
With Hubert Laws
With Dave Liebman
With Charles Lloyd
With Joe Lovano
With Harold Mabern
With Rudresh Mahanthappa & Bunky Green
With Michael Mantler
With Lyle Mays
With John McLaughlin
With Jackie McLean
With Pat Metheny
With Kalman Olah
With Gary Peacock
With Chris Potter
With Teri Roiger
With Sonny Rollins
With Terje Rypdal
With John Scofield
With Don Sebesky
With Wayne Shorter
With Wadada Leo Smith
With John Surman
With Steve Swallow
With Gábor Szabó
With Szakcsi Generation
With Gary Thomas
With Bobby Timmons
With Ralph Towner
With Stanley Turrentine
With McCoy Tyner
With Miroslav Vitous
With Collin Walcott
With Bennie Wallace
With Cedar Walton
With Peter Warren
With Sadao Watanabe
With Ernie Watts
With Kenny Werner
With Jack Wilkins
With Kenny Wheeler
With the World Saxophone Quartet
With Joe Zawinul

Liste der denkmalgeschützten Objekte in Perwang am Grabensee

Die Liste der denkmalgeschützten Objekte in Perwang am Grabensee enthält die denkmalgeschützten

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, unbeweglichen Objekte der Gemeinde Perwang am Grabensee im Bezirk Braunau am Inn.

Quelle für die Auswahl der Objekte sind die vom BDA jährlich veröffentlichten Denkmallisten des jeweiligen Bundeslandes

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. Die Tabelle enthält im Einzelnen folgende Informationen:
Die Tabelle ist alphabetisch nach dem Standort des Denkmals sortiert. Das Sortierkriterium ist die Katastralgemeinde und innerhalb dieser die Adresse.
Durch Klicken von „Karte mit allen Koordinaten“ (rechts oben im Artikel) wird die Lage aller Denkmale im gewählten Kartenobjekt angezeigt.
Altheim | Aspach | Auerbach | Braunau am Inn | Burgkirchen | Eggelsberg | Feldkirchen | Franking | Geretsberg | Gilgenberg | Haigermoos | Handenberg | Helpfau-Uttendorf | Hochburg-Ach | Höhnhart | Jeging | Kirchberg | Lengau | Lochen am See | Maria Schmolln | Mattighofen | Mauerkirchen | Mining | Moosbach | Moosdorf | Munderfing | Neukirchen an der Enknach | Ostermiething | Palting | Perwang am Grabensee | Pfaffstätt | Pischelsdorf am Engelbach | Polling im Innkreis | Roßbach | St. Georgen am Fillmannsbach | St. Johann am Walde | St. Pantaleon | St

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. Peter am Hart | St. Radegund | St

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. Veit im Innkreis | Schalchen | Schwand im Innkreis | Tarsdorf | Treubach | Überackern | Weng im Innkreis