Kazimierz Wyrwas

Kazimierz Wyrwas ps. “Michał” (ur. 1905 w Piątnicy Poduchownej w powiecie łomżyńskim, zginął 14 czerwca 1944 na Porytowym Wzgórzu) – działacz komunistyczny, sekretarz II Obwodu (Lubelskiego Komitetu Obwodowego) PPR.
W 1925 wstąpił do KPP, od 1933 był sekretarzem Komitetu Dzielnicowego (KD) KPP, organizował manifestacje i strajki. W 1936 za działalność komunistyczną został skazany na 8 lat. Wydostał się z więzienia we wrześniu 1939, po czym we współpracy z Sowietami organizował w rodzinnej wsi czerwoną milicję i prowadził działalność na rzecz MOPR. Po wybuchu wojny niemiecko-sowieckiej 22 czerwca 1941 uciekł w głąb ZSRR, gdzie został skierowany do szkoły partyjnej przy Komitecie Wykonawczym Międzynarodówki Komunistycznej w Puszkino koło Moskwy. Jesienią 1943 został przerzucony przez linię frontu na Polesie, gdzie działał oddział partyzancki im. Tadeusza Kościuszki (Pińska Brygada Partyzancka)

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. Na początku stycznia 1944 wraz z oddziałem AL Leona Kasmana “Janowskiego” przeprawił się przez Bug

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, kierując się do lasów parczewskich, gdzie nawiązał łączność z kierownictwem II Obwodu PPR i AL, którego został członkiem. Przejściowo kierował 4 Okręgiem PPR, obejmującym północną Lubelszczyznę. W połowie stycznia przeszedł na południową Lubelszczyznę. W marcu 1944

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, po śmierci Jana Sławińskiego “Tyfusa” w walce z Niemcami w Kaznowie, został sekretarzem II Obwodu PPR. 14 czerwca 1944 zginął w walce z Niemcami z bitwie na Porytowym Wzgórzu.
Jego brat Michał, również działacz KPP, a następnie członek PPR, w latach 1940-1941 był przewodniczącym Rady Wiejskiej w Piątnicy, a po wojnie został funkcjonariuszem łomżyńskiego UB. Zginął 11 maja 1945 pod Wyrzykami w walce z oddziałem poakowskim dowodzonym przez Stanisława Marchewkę “Rybę”.

Wolseley 15/60

The Wolseley 15/60 is an automobile which was produced from 1958 to 1961, and then, as the Wolseley 16/60, from 1961 to 1971. The 15/60 was the first of the mid-sized Pininfarina-styled automobiles manufactured by the British Motor Corporation (BMC). Launched in December 1958 as part of BMC’s Wolseley brand, the design would eventually be shared with seven other marques. All of the cars were updated in 1961 with a larger engine and new model designations

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. The Wolseley 16/60 was the last, in production until 24 April 1971.
Note that there were two other Farina-styled car lines launched by BMC at the same time — the compact Austin A40 Farina and large Wolseley 6/99/Austin A99 Westminster and derivatives.

The first generation of the mid-sized unitary construction Farinas was introduced with the Wolseley 15/60. Within months, the similar Riley 4/68, Austin A55 Cambridge Mark II, MG Magnette Mark III, and Morris Oxford V appeared as well. With its leather seats and polished wooden dashboard the Wolseley was positioned as the up-market non-sporting version in the range.
All five cars used the 1.5 L (1489 cc) B-Series inline-four engine, though different tuning gave varying power output. The Wolseley, together with the Austin Cambridge and the Morris Oxford, was at the bottom and with its single SU carburettor gave just 52 hp (39 kW; 53 PS). The front suspension was independent using coil springs with a live axle and semi elliptic leaf springs at the rear. The brakes were by Girling, hydraulically operated, with 9 in. (229 mm) drums. A cam and peg steering system was used.
The upholstery was in leather and had individual front seats that were set closely together to allow a central passenger to be carried allowing the car to be advertised as seating six although there was a floor mounted gear lever. The handbrake was between the driver’s seat and the door

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. The rear seat had a folding central armrest. Wood veneer was used on the fascia and door cappings. A Smiths heater was fitted as standard. Either single or, as an option, two colour paint was used.
The Wolseley version was particularly easy to identify on the roads after dark thanks to the small illuminated badge on its grille, a feature shared with other Wolseleys of the period.
Later, the Farina design was licensed in Argentina and produced as the Di Tella 1500, Traveller, and Argenta

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.
A car tested by The Motor magazine in 1959 had a top speed of 76.6 mph (123.3 km/h) and could accelerate from 0-60 mph (97 km/h) in 25.6 seconds. A fuel consumption of 31.0 miles per imperial gallon (9.1 L/100 km; 25.8 mpg-US) was recorded. The test car cost £991 including taxes of £331.
The 15/60 was replaced by the Wolseley 16/60 in September 1961. For some buyers, the most important change was the availability of Borg Warner 35 automatic transmission. Buyers choosing the four-speed manual transmission version may have been disappointed to find that the 1961 16/60 still came without synchromesh on first gear. By this time all-synchromesh gear-boxes were the norm for most competitor vehicles in the UK.
Viewed from the outside, the Wolseley 16/60 was differentiated from the 15/60 by the overriders on the bumpers which protruded more than on the earlier car: the plastic mouldings on the rear lights were also modified along with the rear fins, now much reduced in their sharpness.
The 1600 cc Farina models mostly remained in production through to 1968. However, with no rear wheel drive Wolseley-badged replacement produced

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, the Wolseley 16/60 model continued to be offered for sale until early 1971.
The 16/60 models generally used the 1.6 L (1622 cc) B-Series engine. Again, the Wolseley tailed the pack at 61 hp (45 kW; 62 PS).
Wolseley 16/60

Tropical Storm Norma (1970)

Tropical Storm Norma was the fourteenth named tropical cyclone of the 1970 Pacific hurricane season. The storm formed off the coast of Mexico and intensified rapidly, peaking as a strong tropical storm on September 3 before starting a weakening trend which saw it dissipate before making landfall on Baja California.
While the storm never made landfall, the remnants from the storm fueled the Labor Day Storm of 1970, which caused floods in Arizona that resulted in heavy damage and loss of life. The rainfall from this storm broke records, mostly for 24-hour rainfall totals. Despite not being tropical when the damages were done, Norma is considered to be the deadliest system in Arizona history.

A tropical disturbance was first noted in a satellite picture taken on August 30. Soon after, a weak low pressure center associated with the system formed 100 nautical miles (190 km) southwest of Acapulco, Mexico. The system later went through rapid intensification, becoming a tropical depression on August 31 and Tropical Storm Norma later that day. Initially with a loose organization, Norma continued to organize and strengthen, reaching its peak of 60 mph (100 km/h) on September 2. Satellite pictures showed cirrus outflow was greater in the tops of the feeder bands than in the eyewall chimney. On September 3, Navy reconnaissance reported a 992 mbar pressure, Norma’s lowest.
Shortly after the 992 mbar report, however, Norma began to weaken. The same recon that reported the 60 mph (100 km/h) and 992 mbar reading reported back with a mere 40 mph (60 km/h) some time after. Despite the sudden drop in winds, the minimum pressure remained around 994 mbar. The weakening became obvious on satellite presentation, which showed cool inflow and a sheet of stratocumulus clouds around the west semicircle extending under the storm clouds. Norma continued to weaken, degrading into a depression by September 4. At this point

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, the circulation forced moist and unstable maritime air into Arizona which resulted in disastrous floods during Labor Day along with a slow moving cold front. This system would become known as the Labor Day Storm of 1970. On September 5, a cloud spiral was still visible west of Baja California, but the storm’s circulation dissipated, with the remnants of the storm finally dissipating on September 6, just before making landfall on Baja California.
While Norma did not make landfall while tropical (even though it came close to making landfall on Baja California before dissipating), the circulation introduced unstable air into Arizona and Utah which, along with a cold front, resulted in record amounts of rainfall.
For an 800 mi (1,300 km) stretch of the coat, 12 ft (3.7 m) waves were measured. Winds of 60 mph (97 km/h) were recorded at Bahia Tortugas, a village on Punta Eugenia.
The rainfall in Arizona produced deadly flash floods which caused over $1 million in damages and killed 23 people, 14 of which died when Tonto Creek, which was in the vicinity of Kohl’s Ranch, became flooded. Other deaths were reported among automobile drivers. Total rainfall exceeded 7 inches in certain locations, with Workman’s Creek receiving 11.92 inches (303 mm) of rain. Other amounts were recorded in Upper Parker Creek (9.09 inches), Mount Lemmon (8.74 inches), Sunflower (8.44 inches), Kitt Peak (8.08 inches), Tonto Creek Fish Hatchery (7.12 inches)

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, and Crown King (7.02 inches). There were also reports of injuries by campers in Mogollon Rim and Scottsdale reported significant property damage. The major flooding in the state prompted a presidential disaster declaration.
While the storm was causing floods in Arizona, the lower cities of Utah were also experiencing heavy rainfall

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. The most noteworthy rainfall total was recorded in Bug Creek, which experienced an estimated 6 inches (150 mm) of rain in a 24-hour period. No deaths or damage was reported in connection to the storm.
When 11.40 inches (290 mm) of rain fell at Workman’s Creek in a 24-hour period, it became the highest amount of rain to fall in Arizona in a 24-hour period. The record stood until 1997, when the remnants of Hurricane Nora produced 11.97 inches (304 mm) of rain on the top of Harquahala Mountain.
A similar record was recorded in Utah when 6 inches (150 mm) of rain fell in Bug Creek in a 24-hour period. Unlike the Arizona rainfall record, this record still stands today.
When the rains of Norma caused the San Juan River to flood its banks, a size of 1,090 m3 was obtained, making this the largest flood of the San Juan since 1962, when the Navajo Dam was completed. The most runoff from the storm was downstream from the reservoir.
With 23 associated deaths in Arizona, Norma was the deadliest storm in the state’s history.

R356 road (Ireland)

The R356 road is a regional road in Ireland linking Killimor, County Galway with Cloghan

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, County Offaly. The road also travels through the towns of Eyrecourt and Banagher. At Banagher the road crosses the River Shannon via a seven arch bridge erected by the Commissioners for the Improvement of Navigation of the Shannon in 1841–1843

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.
The road is approximately 32km in length.
The R356 commences at a T-junction with the N65 National secondary road in Killimor. The road continues in an eastwards direction before joining the R355 road for about 1km of the journey. After leaving the R355 the road continues eastwards towards Eyrecourt. This section of the road is of very poor quality. Sharp bends, poor quality surface and a very narrow alignment are common throughout this section. The road enters Eyrecourt as River Street and Main Street. At the end of Main Street there is a very sharp turn to stay on the R356

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. From Eyrecourt the quality of road improves somewhat and travels alongside the River Shannon before crossing the river on the Banagher bridge and bringing the road from County Galway into County Offaly. The road continues into Banagher as Main Street. In Main Street a T-junction is formed with the R439 road. In order to stay on the R356 one must turn left (coming from County Galway) and continue on the Harbour Road. Further on the road forms a junction with the R438 road and the road continues on towards Cloghan. The road terminates at the junction with the N62 National secondary road.

Matsudaira Tadayori

Matsudaira Tadayori (松平忠頼, Matsudaira Tadayori?, 1582 – 26 octobre 1609) est un samouraï de la période Sengoku qui devient daimyō au cours du shogunat Tokugawa au début de l’époque d’Edo du Japon. Il est également le fondateur de la branche Sakurai du clan Matsudaira.
Matsudaira Tadayori est le frère cadet de Matsudaira Tadayori (?)

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, obligé héréditaire du clan Tokugawa. Au cours de la bataille de Sekigahara, il est affecté à la défense du château d’Okazaki dans la province de Mikawa, et en 1601 il se voit confier les châteaux d’Inuyama dans la province d’Owari et Kaneyama dans la province de Mino

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. La même année, à la mort de son oncle Matsudaira Iehiro, il hérite du domaine de Musashi-Matsuyama (15 000 koku), qui

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, avec les 10 000 koku de revenus de ses autres possession, le qualifie pour accéder au statut de daimyō.
En 1602, le shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu double ses revenus à 50 000 koku et le réaffecte au domaine de Hamamatsu dans la province de Tōtōmi. En décembre 1607, il est appelé pour aider à la reconstruction du château de Sunpu incendié.
Le 29 septembre 1609, alors qu’il est à Edo dans le cadre du système de service alterné sankin kotai, il est présent à une cérémonie du thé organisée par Mizuno Tadatane, en compagnie des hatamoto Kume Saheiji et Hattori Hanhachirō. Après la cérémonie pas cher soccer jerseys, les participants boivent du sake et jouent au go. Cependant, une dispute éclate, les sabres sortent de leurs fourreaux et Hattori poignarde et tue Matsudaira Tadayori. En conséquence, Hattori et Mizuno reçoivent l’ordre de commettre seppuku un mois plus tard.
Tadayori est marié à une fille d’Oda Nagamasu dont il a six fils, mais l’aîné, Matsudaira Tadashige, est encore un enfant au moment de sa mort

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. Compte tenu de son âge et des circonstances de la mort de son père, il est réduit à l’état de hatamoto et le domaine de Hamamatsu est transféré à Kōriki Tadafusa.
La tombe de Tadayori se trouve au Sengan-ji, temple du clan Inoue situé dans la ville de Fuchū de l’agglomération de Tokyo.

United States Air Force Stability and Control Digital DATCOM

The United States Air Force Stability and Control Digital DATCOM is a computer program that implements the methods contained in the USAF Stability and Control DATCOM to calculate the static stability, control and dynamic derivative characteristics of fixed-wing aircraft

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. Digital DATCOM requires an input file containing a geometric description of an aircraft, and outputs its corresponding dimensionless stability derivatives according to the specified flight conditions. The values obtained can be used to calculate meaningful aspects of flight dynamics.

In February 1976, work commenced to automate the methods contained in the USAF Stability and Control DATCOM, specifically those contained in sections 4, 5, 6 and 7. The work was performed by the McDonnell Douglas Corporation under contract with the United States Air Force in conjunction with engineers at the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory in Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Implementation of the Digital DATCOM concluded in November 1978.
The program is written in FORTRAN IV and has since been updated; however, the core of the program remains the same.
A report was published, separated into three volumes, which explains the use of Digital DATCOM. The report consists of
Section 3 of the USAF Digital DATCOM Manual Volume I defines the inputs available for modeling an aircraft. The inputs are categorized by namelists to facilitate reading the file into FORTRAN.
The FLTCON Namelist describes the flight conditions for the case. A maximum of 400 Mach-altitude combinations can be run at once, with up to 20 angles of attack for each combination. The user can specify whether the Mach number and altitude varies together, the Mach number varies at a constant altitude, or the altitude varies at a constant Mach number. Both subsonic and supersonic analysis can be run in Digital DATCOM.
The OPTINS Namelist defines the reference parameters for the aircraft. The theoretical wing area, mean aerodynamic chord, and wing span are input along with a parameter defining the surface roughness of the aircraft.
The SYNTHS Namelist allows the user to define the positions of the center of gravity and apexes of the wings. The X- and Z- coordinates are needed for the wing, horizontal tail, and vertical tail in order for the aircraft to be synthesized correctly. DATCOM does not require that the origin for the aircraft has to be the nose of the aircraft; any arbitrary point will do, but all of the dimensions need to be referenced from that point. Incidence angles can also be added to the wing and horizontal tail.
The BODY Namelist defines the shape of the body. Digital DATCOM assumes an axisymmetrical shape for the body. Up to 20 stations can be specified with the fuselage half-width, upper coordinate and lower coordinate being defined at each station. For supersonic analysis, additional parameters can be input.
The WGPLNF, HTPLNF and VTPLNF Namelists define the wing, horizontal tail and vertical tail, respectively. The basic parameters such as root chord, tip chord, half-span, twist, dihedral and sweep are input. Digital DATCOM also accepts wing planforms which change geometry along the span such as the F4 Phantom II which had 15 degrees of outboard dihedral.
Canards can also be analyzed in Digital DATCOM. The canard must be specified as the forward lifting surface (i.e. wing) and the wing as the aft lift surface.
For airfoil designations, most traditional NACA 4-, 5-, and 6- airfoils can be specified in Digital DATCOM. Additionally, custom airfoils can be input using the appropriate namelists. Also, twin vertical tails can be designated in Digital DATCOM, but not twin booms.
Using the SYMFLP and ASYFLP Namelists, flaps, elevators, and ailerons can be defined. Digital DATCOM allows a multitude of flap types including plain, single-slotted, and fowler flaps. Up to 9 flap deflections can be analyzed at each Mach-altitude combination. Unfortunately, the rudder is not implemented in Digital DATCOM.
Digital DATCOM also offers an automated aircraft TRIM function which calculates elevator deflections needed to trim the aircraft.
Other Digital DATCOM inputs include power effects (propeller and jet), ground effects, trim tabs, and experimental data

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. The EXPRXX Namelist allows a user to use experimental data (such as coefficient of lift, coefficient of drag, etc.) in lieu of the data Digital DATCOM produces in the intermediate steps of its component build-up.
All dimensions are taken in feet and degrees unless specified otherwise. Digital DATCOM provides commands for outputting the dynamic derivatives (DAMP) as well as the stability coefficients of each components (BUILD).
Digital DATCOM produces a copious amount of data for the relatively small amount of inputs it requires. By default, only the data for the aircraft is output, but additional configurations can be output:
For each configuration, stability coefficients and derivatives are output at each angle of attack specified

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. The details of this output are defined in Section 6 of the USAF Digital DATCOM Manual Volume I. The basic output includes:
For complete aircraft configurations, downwash data is also included.
When compared with modern methods of computational fluid dynamics, Digital DATCOM may seem antiquated. However, in its day, the program was an advanced estimation tool, and certainly much faster than plowing through pages and pages of engineering texts. Digital DATCOM is no longer supported by the USAF and is now public domain software.
Inlets, external stores, and other protuberances cannot be input because Digital DATCOM analyzes the fuselage as a body of revolution. The simplification affects the coefficient of drag for the aircraft.
Dynamic derivatives are not output for aircraft that have wings that are not straight-tapered or have leading edge extensions. This problem can be overcome by using experimental data for the wing-body (using non-straight tapered wing).
There is no method to input twin vertical tails mounted on the fuselage

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, although there is a method for H-Tails. This problem can be addressed by approximating the twin vertical tails as a single equivalent vertical tail mounted to the fuselage.
Digital DATCOM cannot provide outputs for the control derivatives with regard to the rudder control surface. According to the manual, there is no any input parameters which define the geometriy of rudder.
Digital DATCOM cannot analyze three lifting surfaces at once, such as a canard-wing-horizontal tail configuration. This problem can be addressed by superposition of lifting surfaces through the experimental input option.
There are intentions among those that use this package to improve the overall package, through an easier user interface, as well as more comprehensive output data.
Digital DATCOM has been resurrected by Bill Galbraith of Holy Cows, Inc. and improved. While the original DIGDAT program has been left relatively untouched, there has been a new front-end created that will allow the user to name the input file with something more significant than FOR005.DAT. The new input file format allows the user to place comments in the input file. There have also been hooks placed in the DIGDAT that allow for alternate outputs in addition to the original output format, which is 132 columns wide and slightly user abusive if you intend to import the data into another application. There is a graphical representation of the aircraft output in AC3D, as well as data table output in XML for the JSBSim and FlightGear projects, as well as a free-format LFI (Linear Function Interpolation) data table file.
Holy Cows has packaged the Digital DATCOM program DIGDAT, with the described improvements, into a package called DATCOM+. Along with the DIGDAT program, there are viewers for the AC3D, XML, and LFI format output files. Data tables can easily be output to the screen or to PNG files for inclusion into reports. The source code is not available from Holy Cows, Inc., but they provide executables for Windows, Cygwin, and Linux.
Aerospace Toolbox includes a function for importing output files from Digital DATCOM into MATLAB. This function lets you collect aerodynamic coefficients from static and dynamic analyses and transfer them into MATLAB as a cell array of structures, with each structure containing information about a Digital DATCOM output file.
OpenDatcom is an open-source GUI for the Digital DATCOM created and hosted by the OpenAE community. OpenDatcom incorporates all the basic (non-experimental) functionality supported by the Digital DATCOM while providing real-time input error and bounds checking. An alpha version of the program was released November 1st, 2009 to the general public. The OpenAE.org web site is no longer active.

United Nations peacekeeping missions involving Pakistan

UN peacekeeping missions involving Pakistan covers a long and cherished history of Pakistani involvement with the United Nations. Pakistan joined the United Nations on 30 September 1947, regardless of Afghan opposition against Pakistan’s entrance to United Nations because of the Durand Line. Since 1960, Pakistan has been actively involved in most of the UN Peacekeeping missions and today is the country with the most troops serving for UN peacekeeping missions. Some of the major contributions were in Somalia, Sierra Leone, Bosnia, Congo and Liberia.
Peacekeeping, as defined by the United Nations, is a way to help countries torn by conflict create conditions for sustainable peace. UN peacekeepers— usually military officers, civilian police officers and civilian personnel from many countries—monitor and observe peace processes that emerge in post-conflict situations and assist ex-combatants in implementing the peace agreements they have signed. Such assistance comes in many forms, including confidence-building measures, power-sharing arrangements, electoral support, strengthening the rule of law, and economic and social development. Pakistan has contributed mainly military, but also paramilitary and civilian police as peacekeepers as well. All operations must include the resolution of conflicts through the use of force to be considered valid under the charter of the United Nations.

Contribution: 400 Troops, Ordnance, Transport units and Staff Personnel Casualties: None.
Operation of the United Nations in Congo was a United Nations peacekeeping force in Congo that was established after United Nations Security Council Resolution 143 of July 14, 1960. It was active during the Congo Crisis. During the operation Pakistan provided logistic support during movement of troops to and from Congo and inland movement to the United Nation troops. Pakistan Army Supply Corps (ASC) organized the whole operation. It continued uninterrupted from 1960 to 1964 with four Independent Army Supply Corps companies, each consisting of about 100 personnel. The movement control entailed move through sea, air, rail, river and road transport. A systematic organization was created to ensure foolproof administrative arrangements for transportation of troops, weapons, equipment, stores and rations throughout Congo in unfriendly environments.
Contribution: 1500 Troops Casualties: None.
United Nations Security Force in New Guinea, West Irian (UNSF), after the agreement between comity of nations that the Netherlands would hand over control of West Irian to the United Nation by 1 October 1962, prior to its take over by Indonesia for subsequent plebiscite. It was a matter of great honour that Pakistan was asked to undertake the exclusive responsibility of establishing United Nation Temporary Executive Authority in maintaining law and order in this part of the world, until it was handed over to Indonesia in the following year.
In the circumstances, when the world was focusing its eyes on the United Nations Security Force, the Pakistani composite force comprising 14 Punjab Regiment, two companies of 18 Punjab Regiment and supporting elements, disembarked on the coast of Sorong after completing 6000 miles sea voyage on 8 October 1962. The responsibility of this contingent stretched over hundreds of miles. In order to accomplish the assigned mission the companies were deployed at Merauke, Fak Fak, Sorong and Kaimana.
The Battalion Headquarters were positioned at Biak. Pakistani troops effectively prevented skirmishes between Papuans and Indonesian troops. On one such occasion Pakistani troops rushed swiftly to Kaimana area on 14 January 1963, to avoid a bloody conflict and brought the situation under control.[citation needed] In another incident, Pakistani troops (a company strength) were moved to Monokwari by air in response to a distress signal to restore law and order situation threatened by Papuan Volunteer Corps. On reaching the spot, it revealed that 350 PVK troops were in a mutinous mood at the Arfak Camp. Pakistani peace keepers restored the situation very tactfully without spilling a single drop of blood. The Pakistani contingent ensured smooth withdrawal of Dutch troops without any ensuing battles with the Indonesian Army. It also helped Indonesian troops in taking over the control swiftly in a conducive atmosphere.
Contribution: 20 military observers. Casualties: None.
United Nations Transition Assistance Group in Namibia. The United Nations operation in Namibia marked the culmination of 70 years of pressure by the organized international community – through the League of Nations – and then the United Nations to enable the people of the Territory to live in peace, freedom and independence. Its climax came shortly after midnight on 21 March 1990, when the South African flag was lowered, the Namibian flag was raised, after the Namibian War of Independence and the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Mr. Javier Pérez de Cuéllar, administered the oath of office to Mr. Sam Nujoma as President of the newly independent State.[citation needed]
Contribution: 1136 total (troops and civilians)

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. Casualties: None.
United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM), was established on April 9, 1991 following the Gulf War by Security Council Resolution 689 (1991) and fully deployed by early May. In the aftermath of the 1991 Gulf war Kuwait found itself confronted with colossal post-war problems.[citation needed] They included the reclamation of the entire land of Kuwait which had been turned into a battlefield by Iraq and the Allied Forces.[citation needed] Almost the whole territory was infested with lethal mines, huge stockpiles of ammunition and explosives and vast dugouts, which made the normal use of land impossible.[citation needed]
Finally the job was separately entrusted to Pakistan and six other countries.[citation needed] Pakistan was assigned the most difficult area in the north of Kuwait city. It was spread over 3000 square kilometers

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. Subsequently reclamation of Bubiyan Island also was entrusted to Pakistan.[citation needed]
The operation was carried out by a task force of Pakistan Army Engineers belonging to Frontier Works Organization.[citation needed]
Contribution: 525 troops. Casualties: None

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.
United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH), during the 1991 coup and military rule in Haiti on the request of the United Nations, Pakistan provided one Infantry battalion to form part of UNMIH.[citation needed] This battalion, PAKBAT, arrived in Haiti in March 1995 and was deployed in Cap-Haïtien.[citation needed] At that time this area faced extremely volatile security situation and was also reputed to be the hotbed of political restlessness.[citation needed] In order to improve the security situation, PAKBAT started to discharge its responsibilities with an extensive patrolling pro gramme covering north, northeast and central regions. These patrols quickly became conduit for cordial relationship between the local population and peace keepers.[citation needed] It gave confidence to soldiers wearing blue berets, the Haitian National Police and other government functionaries which led to degree of stability and cooperation in the region.[citation needed] PAKBAT also played a significant role in holding free and fair elections in the northern reaches of Haiti which was appreciated by local as well as foreign media.[citation needed] For humanitarian assistance, food distribution among impoverished people of Haiti was one pro gramme. While much of the food was supplied by NGOs, PAKBAT troops even distributed their own quota of rations to hard pressed population, hence earned good-will.[citation needed] Scarcity of potable water being another serious problem, PAKBAT surveyed region’s potable water requirements, pinpointing locations where water points were urgently required and helped NGOs to repair and install-water pumps and bring water to remote areas.[citation needed] On one such occasion, PAKBAT learnt of an orphanage that had no potable water. A patrol quickly supplied bottled water and biscuits and installed.[citation needed] In recognition of PAKBAT efforts, a school was named, Pakistan School.[citation needed]
Contribution: 1106 (troops, mine clearance and staff). Casualties: None.
United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC). When the United Nations requested the member countries to contribute troops to UNTAC, Pakistan, in keeping with its previous record, responded positively and 2nd Battalion of the Azad Kashmir Regiment was dispatched. This contingent formed part of a force of 15900 personnel from 32 countries. They were tasked to ensure the withdrawal of all foreign forces, supervision of cease-fire, disarmament and demobilization of Cambodia’s warring factions.[citation needed]
Contribution: 3000 troops. Casualties: 6.
United Nations Protection Forces in Bosnia (UNPROFOR), recognizing the commendable performance of the Pakistan Army Contingents as United Nations peacekeepers in Somalia and Cambodia, the United Nations requested the Government of Pakistan to contribute troops to the United Nations Protection Force in Bosnia-Herzegovina. A 3000 strong contingent consisting of two Battalion Groups and a National Support (NS) Headquarters left for Bosnia and Croatia in May 1994.[citation needed]
Contribution: 7200 troops. Casualties: 39.
United Nations Operation in Somalia I (UNOSOM I), during the Somali Civil War, Pakistan was the first country to respond to the call of the United Nations. On 14 September 1992 five hundred Pakistani troops arrived in Mogadishu to launch the United Nation humanitarian campaign. Deployment of the security force was preceded by the arrival of an advance party of 50 United Nation observers.[citation needed]
Contribution: 7 military observers. Casualties: None.
United Nations assistance mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR). was originally established to help implement the Arusha Peace Agreement signed by the Rwandese parties on 4 August 1993

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. UNAMIR’s mandate and strength were adjusted on a number of occasions in the face of the tragic events of the genocide and the changing situation in the country. UNAMIR’s mandate came to an end on 8 March 1996. The mission was headed by Mr. Shaharyar M. Khan from Pakistan as the special representative of the secretary-general and head of mission. After the closure of UNAMIR, Mr. Khan continued as the Secretary-General’s Special Representative through April 1996.
Contribution: 14 military observers. Casualties: None.
Established to assist the Government of Angola and the União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (UNITA) in restoring peace and achieving national reconciliation on the basis of the Peace Accords for Angola, signed on 31 May 1991, the Lusaka Protocol signed on 20 November 1994, and relevant Security Council resolutions.
Contribution: 1014 troops and staff. Casualties: None.
United Nations transitional authority in Eastern Slavonia (UNTAES). After the Demilitarization Agreement signed between the Croatian Government and the Serb representatives in November 1995 at Erdut, the United Nations was asked to take steps for the implementation of the agreement in war ravaged areas of Eastern Slavonia, Baranya and western Sirmium within a period of thirty days. A 1000-soldiers strong Pakistan Army Contingent joined UNTAES in the first week of May 96 and assumed its duties on 18 May 96 after relieving Belgian troops.
Contribution: 5000 troops. Casualties: 6.
United Nations mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL). During the mission the UN Security Council approved several requests of military assistance which drew to a final force of 17,500 military personnel, including the 260 military observers, the Council took this decision by its resolution 1346, and, by the same resolution, approved a revised concept of operations. Pakistan being the largest contributor to this mission sent a composite force of three Battalion Groups and one engineer battalion. Mr. Sajjad Akram from the Pakistan Army served as the Force Commander and Chief Military Observer from October 2003 to September 2005.

Pravrajika Mokshaprana

Pravrajika Mokshaprana (1915 –1999) Pravrajika Mokshaprana was the second President of the Sri Sarada Math and the Ramakrishna Sarada Mission. During her long tenure of twenty-six years of spiritual ministration, she initiated thousands of people, guiding them to lead a spiritual life. Before she became President of the Math, she was headmistress of Sister Nivedita’s Girls’ School from 1946 to 1948. She had an ardent interest in providing education for women as envisaged by Swami Vivekananda. Bold and fearless, she encouraged other women to be fearless and self-confident

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. Swami Premeshananda, the then monastic head of Ramakrishna Mission Sevashrama at Sargachi met her at Nivedita School and later wrote to her, ‘The very sight of you has raised such high hopes in me that I rejoice at the prospect that through you we may at last give effect to our long long cherished vow of bringing about women’s emancipation.’
After Sri Sarada Math and the Ramakrishna Sarada Mission were established, Pravrajika Mokshaprana became the Vice President and the Secretary and Headmistress of Shiksha Mandir, a branch centre of the Ramakrishna Sarada Mission at Baruipara in Kolkata. She thought of the students as her chosen ideal and was able to identify with them. The children responded to her faith in them. Under Pravrajika Mokshaprana the expansion of Sri Sarada Math and the Ramakrishna Sarada Mission which had started in the time of Pravrajika Bharatiprana continued to spread. New centres came up in Arunachal Pradesh, Pune, Bangalore, Trivandrum, Indore, Bhuvaneswar, Haridwar, Almora and one in far off Australia. New Mission centres were opened in the rural areas of West Bengal like Burdwan, Midnapore and 24 Parganas and Siriti in Kolkata. As President, she visited all the branch centers in India giving initiation to many and spreading the message of Sri Ramakrishna, Sri Sarada Devi and Swami Vivekananda. Whenever she visited a centre she created an atmosphere of a joyful festival to which the devotees looked forward each year. Pravrajika Mokshaprana’s life was distinguished by her learning and discipline. Her articles and lectures were published in the journals of the Order. A voracious reader, she studied the scriptures as well as other books about the world History and its trends. She was interested in a variety of subjects such as literature, astronomy, geography and philosophy. She enjoyed discussions with the scholars and distinguished litterateurs who visited her regularly. Her compassionate heart attracted many souls from far and near. Whether tribal children of Northeast India, scholars from America or probationers of the Math, everyone received her motherly love and inspiration.

Renuka Basu as she was known in her earlier days was born in 1915 to Brajendra Nath Basu and Pankajkumari Devi – a middle-class family of North Calcutta. Brajendranath was an employee of Calcutta Corporation and wanted to give his children including Renuka a decent education. In childhood she visited Dakshineswar temple and Kankurgachi Yogodyan, both places bearing the memories of the life and work of Sri Ramakrishna. After her father died Renu moved to her maternal uncles’ house in Rajabazar with her family. Her uncle Dr. Satyesh Chandra Mitra first introduced Renu to Ramakrishna Mission and Belur Math. She came in intimate contact with Mahapurush Maharaj or Swami Shivananda, a direct disciple of Sri Ramakrishna. She was initiated into spiritual life by Swami Vijnanananda, a direct disciple of Sri Ramakrishna in 1935. In 1942 she passed Master of Arts in ancient Indian history and decided to lead a life of celibacy. In 1946 she joined Nivedita School as the headmistress at the behest of Swami Nirvedananda, who was a leading monk of the Ramakrishna Order and the head of Ramakrishna Mission Students Home, Belgharia. She was later given the post of secretary of the same school in 1949.
She traveled to Benaras, to Kankhal and to South India and Ceylone during this period. She also traveled to Kashmir. She met many veteran Sannyasins of Ramakrishna Order including Swami Atulananda or Gurudas Maharaj in Ramakrishna Mission Sevashrama, Kankhal who was a direct disciple of Swami Turiyananda, Swami Jagadananda, Swami Vishuddhananda, Swami Virajananda, Swami Sankarananda, Swami Shantananda and others.
In 1953, on the occasion of the birth centenary of Holy Mother Sri Sarada Devi, a group of seven dedicated workers of Nivedita School and other affiliated organizations like Matribhavan were given the vow of celibacy or Brahmacharya and Renu was one of them. During this period Renu had several letters from many renowned monks of Ramakrishna Order including Swami Premeshananda, the head of Ramakrishna Mission Sevashrama, Sargachi. She relinquished her posts in Nivedita school and joined Sarala, later known as Pravrajika Bharatiprana, the first president of Sri Sarada Math, as a spiritual inmate of the newly established Math. The new monastery was formed in Dakshineswar and Renuka was one of the dedicated workers. In 1959 she received the vow of Sannyas from Swami Sankarananda, the then president of Belur Math, and became known as Pravrajika Mokshaprana.
Mokshaprana Mataji was elected as a trustee of Sri Sarada Math in 1959 and in 1960 she became the vice president of the Math and the Mission. She personally supervised the construction of a degree college, Vivekananda college in Dumdum, under Ramakrishna Sarada Mission. She had knowledge of Homeopathy and she established a charitable dispensary in Dakshineswar which was frequented by the local people and this helped Sri Sarada Math to garner local support for its activities

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. In 1962 Ramakrishna Siksha Mandir, the second branch of Ramakrishna Sarada Mission was established in Baruipara Lane near Alambazar. It constituted a day care, a junior basic school and a mother teachers’ training centre. Mokshaprana Mataji was the head of this centre and she built it and made it environment friendly as well as fit for children. She herself went to the localities to get students for the school. She took classes for the mothers of the children and also local women. She established Saradamani Pathshala for taking care of educational needs of underprivileged kids with the help of the mother teachers. She also began teaching extra curricular activities like music, drawing, painting, dancing, sewing etc. to make the mother teachers financially independent and sold the wares produced by them to make them and the ashram self-sufficient.
In 1973 she became the second president of Sri Sarada Math and Ramakrishna Sarada Mission after passing away of Pravrajika Bharatiprana. She had laid great emphasis on discipline with love. She also ensured the spiritual growth and development of the new Brahmacharins and Sannyasins in the monastery. Her quotations – We have come here for the work of the Holy Trio, believe this with all your might. One should forego any ego as that is dangerous for an aspirant. Do not try to judge anybody, whatever is happening, become a silent witness. If you do not like anybody, do not hate or demean him or her. Your God has brought him or her here, do not forget that.” As the monastery head she looked after every affair of the Math and ensured that the core ideology was preserved. Under her stewardship Sri Sarada Math and Ramakrishna Sarada Mission rapidly expanded.
New centres came up in Arunachal Pradesh, Pune, Bangalore, Trivandrum, Indore, Bhuvaneswar jimmy choo sale, Haridwar, Almora and one in far off Australia. New Mission centres were opened in the rural areas of West Bengal like Burdwan, Midnapore and 24 Parganas. She stayed at the helm for 26 years till her passing away in 1999. She initiated many devotees. Many learned and educated people were influenced by her and they include Amzad Ali Khan, the famous Sitarist, Ustad Ali Akbar Khan, whose wife Zubeida Khan was her disciple, Ashish Khan, noted Sitarist

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, Sanjib Chattopadhyay, noted Bengali novelist, Nimaisadhan Basu, academic and historian, Harsha Dutta, noted journalist, J.B Kripalani, famous politician and others. She was a student of ancient history and she was a voracious reader of all subjects including literature, astronomy, geography and philosophy.
She was bold and fearless. During Naxal movement in 1960s in Bengal when her school was attacked she herself confronted the armed attackers. She helped and inspired many people, monastics and lay devotees alike to take up the ideals of Sri Ramakrishna, Sri Sarada Devi and Swami Vivekananda.
In November 1998 she was diagnosed with cancer. She kept her active life and her last initiation was on 18 July 1998. She died on 30 August 1999. A leading Bengali daily Anandabazar Patrika reported that many dignitaries and lay devotees had come to see her last rites despite rainy weather to pay their respect. She was 84 years in age.

Bandise Maku

* Senior club appearances and points correct as of 17 October 2015. † Appearances (Points).
Bandise Grey Maku (born 24 July 1986 in King William’s Town, South Africa) is a South African rugby union player, currently playing for the Blue Bulls in the Currie Cup and the Bulls in Super Rugby. His usual position is hooker.

He represented his local team Border Bulldogs at the 2004 Craven Week before moving to the Blue Bulls, for whom he played rugby at youth level.
He was first named in a Blue Bulls squad during the 2006 Vodacom Cup

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. He made his Currie Cup debut the following season, coming on as a 72nd-minute substitute against Boland Cavaliers. A year later, he was also included in Bulls squad for the 2008 Super 14 season

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, making his debut in Rotorua against the Chiefs.
He joined the Lions for the 2011 Super Rugby season, where he started in 14 games. He also played Currie Cup rugby for the Golden Lions, where he was also a member of the starting line-up which defeated the Natal Sharks 42–16 to win the 2011 Currie Cup Premier Division. He was injured for the entire 2012 Super Rugby season, but did play some Currie Cup rugby at the end of the season.
He then joined the Kings for the 2013 Super Rugby season.
After the 2013 Super Rugby season, he rejoined former team the Blue Bulls, signing a contract at the team until October 2016.
His first tour of duty for his country was with the Springboks to France, Italy, Ireland & England in late 2009. He earned his first cap for his country playing against Italy. In 2010, Maku was again called up for duty with the Springboks in a November tour of Ireland, Wales, Scotland and England. His call came two matches into the tour on 18 November 2010

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, after a controversial incident in which two other Springbok players tested positive for a banned substance.

Herzog zu Mecklenburg

Herzog zu Mecklenburg war von 1348 bis zum Ende der Monarchie der Adelstitel des regierenden Fürstenhauses von Mecklenburg. Auf ihn setzt zugleich die dynastische Zählung aller mecklenburgischen Regenten auf.
Als Herzog zu Mecklenburg titelten ohne Unterschied alle männlichen Mitglieder der Fürstenfamilie

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, bis 1815 auch alle Regenten des Landes bzw. zeitweilig existierender Landesteile (zuletzt Mecklenburg-Schwerin und Mecklenburg-Strelitz) sowie auch alle männlichen Abkömmlinge des Geschlechts (Prinzen).
Weibliche Mitglieder der Fürstenfamilie, angeheiratete Ehefrauen der Herzöge sowie auch alle weiblichen Abkömmlinge des Geschlechts (Prinzessinnen) titelten als Herzogin zu Mecklenburg.
Abweichende Titel zur Unterscheidung von anderen Mitgliedern der Dynastie führten die jeweiligen mecklenburgischen Regenten erst seit der Standeserhöhung durch den Wiener Kongress 1815. Die Regenten beider Landesteile titelten seither als Großherzog von Mecklenburg, die jeweiligen Thronfolger als Erbgroßherzog von Mecklenburg

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, die zugehörigen Ehefrauen entsprechend in der weiblichen Titelform als Großherzogin bzw. Erbgroßherzogin.
Nach dem Sturz der Monarchie fielen die Titel Großherzog bzw. Erbgroßherzog ersatzlos fort, der frühere Adelstitel des Geschlechts wurde als Herzog zu Mecklenburg zum bürgerlichen Familiennamen der Nachkömmlinge umgewandelt.
Umgangssprachlich wurden den mecklenburgischen Fürstentiteln zur besseren Unterscheidung oft die Bezeichnung des jeweiligen Landesteils oder fürstlichen Hauses (…-Schwerin, .

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.-Güstrow

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, …-Strelitz) hinzugeführt. Diese erläuternden Titelzusätze waren zu keiner Zeit Bestandteil der offiziellen Titulatur.